also known as gum disease treatment.  Gum or Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth. . The word "periodontal" literally means "around the tooth.".


A mild form of the disease, gingivitis, the gums are red, swollen and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort. Gingivitis is reversible with good oral hygiene and treatment.

Untreated gingivitis may progress to the more severe and destructive forms of gum diseases, known as periodontitis.

gum periodontal diasease

Healthy gums

gingivitis gum disease

Gingivitis: gums red,swollen & bleed easily


Plaque can spread and grow gradually below the gum line. Infection and inflammation spreads from the gums to the ligaments and bone that support the teeth. Periodontitis is irreversible but you can stop its progression through good oral hygiene and professional treatment. Untreated periodontitis will lead to progressive bone loss around teeth, looseness of the teeth and eventual tooth loss.

periodontitis gum disease
periodontitis gum disease

Early Periodontitis

Gums separate from tooth Some bone loss

Advanced Periodontitis  Tooth may become loose  Severe bone loss. Pus may develop

The main cause of gum diseases is bacterial plaque that adhere to tooth surfaces. This plaque if left undisturbed will become calculus (tartar)

healthy periodontitis


Treatment basically involves removing these bacterial plaque and calculus from the tooth surfaces below the gum level, using professional scraping instruments (also referred as deep cleaning). Local anaesthetics is usually given to alleviate the discomfort.

Regular dental visits and home care with brushing and flossing are essential to help keep periodontal disease from becoming more serious or recurring. Other means of cleaning between your teeth with interproximal brushes and the use of mouth rinses may also be recommended.

stages of gum periodontal disesase

Periodontitis and systemic disorders

Periodontitis has been long associated with severe diseases such as carditis (inflammation of the heart), low birth weight babies, and preeclampsia. It is also linked to certain systemic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disorders, preterm birth, autoimmune disorders and some cancer. We are still trying to understand the mechanisms and relationships between chronic periodontal infection and systemic disorders. More studies in this field are needed to confirm the association and undertand the mechanisms between periodontitis and these systemic diseases.